Vitamin B Complex

Vitamin B Complex

Vitamin B Complex

Types and Forms

The Vitamin B complex consists of eight distinct vitamins, each with specific functions and benefits:

  1. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
  2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
  3. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
  4. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
  5. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
  6. Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
  7. Vitamin B9 (Folate/Folic Acid)
  8. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Scientific Basis

The B vitamins are water-soluble and play crucial roles in cellular metabolism, acting as coenzymes in various enzymatic reactions. They are vital for energy production, red blood cell formation, and neurological function.

Chemical Sources

  • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine): Whole grains, pork, legumes, nuts, and seeds.
  • Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): Milk, cheese, leafy green vegetables, liver, and almonds.
  • Vitamin B3 (Niacin): Meat, fish, poultry, whole grains, and nuts.
  • Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid): Chicken, beef, potatoes, oats, and tomatoes.
  • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine): Poultry, fish, potatoes, chickpeas, and bananas.
  • Vitamin B7 (Biotin): Eggs, almonds, spinach, and sweet potatoes.
  • Vitamin B9 (Folate): Leafy greens, legumes, seeds, and liver.
  • Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin): Meat, fish, dairy products, and fortified cereals.

Medicinal Uses

  • Vitamin B1: Prevents beriberi, supports nervous system function.
  • Vitamin B2: Promotes energy production, skin health.
  • Vitamin B3: Treats pellagra, supports digestion and skin health.
  • Vitamin B5: Involved in synthesizing coenzyme A, important for metabolism.
  • Vitamin B6: Supports brain development and function, helps convert tryptophan to niacin.
  • Vitamin B7: Strengthens hair and nails, supports metabolism.
  • Vitamin B9: Essential for DNA synthesis, important during pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects.
  • Vitamin B12: Vital for red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis.

Normal Amounts Used in the Body

Recommended daily allowances (RDAs) vary by age, sex, and life stage:

  • Vitamin B1: 1.1-1.2 mg
  • Vitamin B2: 1.1-1.3 mg
  • Vitamin B3: 14-16 mg
  • Vitamin B5: 5 mg
  • Vitamin B6: 1.3-1.7 mg
  • Vitamin B7: 30 mcg
  • Vitamin B9: 400 mcg (600 mcg for pregnant women)
  • Vitamin B12: 2.4 mcg


  • Energy Production: B vitamins are essential for converting food into energy.
  • Nervous System Health: Support brain function and nerve health.
  • Red Blood Cell Formation: Particularly B9 (folate) and B12 are crucial for the formation of healthy red blood cells.
  • Skin, Hair, and Nail Health: B7 (biotin) is known for its role in maintaining healthy hair, skin, and nails.
  • DNA Synthesis and Repair: B9 and B12 are essential for DNA synthesis and repair, crucial during periods of rapid growth such as pregnancy.


  • Excess Intake: Generally, excess B vitamins are excreted in the urine, but very high doses can cause issues:
  • Vitamin B3 (Niacin): High doses can cause liver damage, skin flushing, and gastrointestinal issues.
  • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine): Very high doses can cause nerve damage.
  • Vitamin B9 (Folate): Excessive intake can mask B12 deficiency, leading to potential neurological damage.


  • Vitamin B1 Deficiency: Causes beriberi, characterized by weakness, nerve degeneration, and cardiovascular problems.
  • Vitamin B2 Deficiency: Leads to ariboflavinosis, with symptoms like sore throat, swelling of mucous membranes, and anemia.
  • Vitamin B3 Deficiency: Causes pellagra, characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia.
  • Vitamin B5 Deficiency: Rare, but can cause symptoms like fatigue, irritability, and numbness.
  • Vitamin B6 Deficiency: Can lead to anemia, dermatitis, depression, and confusion.
  • Vitamin B7 Deficiency: Rare, but can cause hair loss, skin rashes, and brittle nails.
  • Vitamin B9 Deficiency: Causes megaloblastic anemia, and in pregnancy, increases the risk of neural tube defects.
  • Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Leads to pernicious anemia and neurological disorders.


The B vitamins are essential for maintaining energy levels, brain function, and overall cellular health. A balanced diet typically provides sufficient amounts, but certain populations may require supplements to avoid deficiencies. Excessive intake of specific B vitamins can lead to adverse effects, highlighting the importance of consuming them within recommended limits.

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